In several developing countries, root and tuber crops play a crucial role in food security as well as in agriculture. Based on production and consumption, sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] plays a significant role after potato among the root and tuber crops. Today, sweet potato breeding program focus on multiple purposes. There are four sweet potato breeding platforms (three in Africa) and in SSA there are four breeding centers (three in West Africa). High levels of β‐carotene, phenolics, anthocyanins, vitamins, fiber, dietary, minerals, and other bioactive compounds content depends on the flesh color of sweet potatoes. The orange‐fleshed sweet potato types contain high β‐carotene levels and low dry matter content. White‐cream fleshed color varieties have high dry matter (>30%). The purple‐fleshed sweet potato varieties with attractive color and high anthocyanin content are the most preferred in Asia. Sweet potato with low in sweetness and higher dry matter (28–30%) are the specially of most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Consuming β‐carotene leads as a viable long‐term food‐based strategy for combating the deficiency vitamin A in the world. The sweet potato dry matter content up of 80-90% carbohydrates and exists in the form of starch and sugars non-starch polysaccharides. The primary contributors to the taste of the sweet potato are sugars and organic acids. The strong flavor and high levels of sweetness may have affected the popularity of sweet potato as a staple food. Due of the negative correlation between traits, breeding for high B-carotene and dry matter with low sugar in one variety has remained a challenge, although it was reported that recurrent mass selection should be possible to accumulate favorable alleles so that progress can be made over.
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