European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences en-US (Editor-in-Chief) (Editor-in-Chief) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 09:05:59 -0400 OJS 60 Effects of Communication for Better Vegetable Production in Burkina Faso: Case of the Agricultural Plain of Mogtedo in the Province of Ganzourgou in the Central Plateau Region <p>Vegetable production is the main activity directly linked to the impounding of the dam, its storage, its sustainable conservation for different uses. The article aims to be a support and reinforcement framework for aspects of communication and behavior change for the sustainable development of our off-season production in rural areas. Thus, communication can constitute strategies in the mobilization of water resources for a better consideration of the management of hydraulic works for a better market gardening production in the commune of Mogtédo and Zam. Is communication a tool for better vegetable production? In this study the main objective is to analyze the effects of communication for better market gardening production around the agricultural plain of Mogtédo in the province of Ganzourgou in the Central Plateau region. To do this, quantitative and qualitative methods were used for the collection, processing and analysis of data using appropriate tools.</p> Jérôme Compaore , Joachim Bonkoungou, Safiata Kiemdé Copyright (c) 2023 Jérôme Compaore , Joachim Bonkoungou, Safiata Kiemdé Tue, 19 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Husbandry and Productivity of Red Maasai Sheep in Arumeru and Monduli Districts in Tanzania <p>This study was undertaken to describe the husbandry practices and productivity of the Red Maasai sheep in Arumeru and Moduli districts in Tanzania. Sixty three farmers from each of the two districts were interviewed. Data were analysed using SPSS computer package. All farmers (100%) practice an extensive production system where sheep graze together with cattle and goats. The majority (61.9%) of the farmers use communal land to graze their animals, and children are the main source (69.0%) of labour. Almost half (50.8%) of the farmers indicated to supplement their sheep with mainly (65.6%) maize bran. Identified constraints to production were diseases, drought, lack of capital, poor markets and extension services, thefts, and predators. A plastic apron was found to be an effective indigenous technique to control mating and practice seasonal breeding. Age at first lambing for the majority of Red Maasai sheep was 13 to 18 months and lambing intervals of 12 to 18 months. Most sheep lambed between October and January. Twinning cases were few (15.9%) indicating a low twinning rate in the population. Breeding rams were selected within flocks, and many farmers (95.2%) preferred seasonal breeding to allow ewes to lamb in the wet season. Disposals were done to get income, remove infertile ewes, and slaughter for food and rituals. Generally, the productivity of Red Maasai sheep was low due to poor husbandry practices. It was concluded that improved management was likely to enhance sustainable production and conserve the breed.</p> Edwin Chang'a, George Kifaro Copyright (c) 2023 Edwin Chang'a, George Kifaro Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Yields of Biodynamic Agriculture of Ernst Stegemann (1882-1943): Experimental Circle Data of the First Biodynamic Farmer <p>Ernst Stegemann (1882–1943) was the first biodynamic farmer. He was an Anthroposophist with a 375 acre (150 hectares) mixed farm at Marienstein, midway between Frankfurt and Hamburg, Germany. Stegemann attended the Agriculture Course at Koberwitz (now Kobierzyce, Poland) in June 1924 at which the New Age philosopher, Dr Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), laid the historical foundations for biodynamic and organic farming. Stegemann was a founding member of the Experimental Circle of Anthroposophical Farmers and Gardeners which was founded by Steiner during the Koberwitz course. Prior to the Course, Steiner gave Stegemann some preliminary insights on agricultural practice. Steiner’s injunction to the farmers and gardeners of the Experimental Circle was to test his “hints” for a new and then un-named agriculture, to establish what works, and then to publish the results, and thereby bring the ‘era of secrecy’ to a close. Until that point, members of the Circle were to maintain confidentiality of the Course and experiments. The present paper reveals some of the earliest results of putting Steiner’s indications to the test. For Stegemann, over eight years, the annual yield for sugar beet show increases using Biodynamics of up to 26% (compared to the base year of 1923). The annual yield for “cereals” show increases using Biodynamics of up to 42% (compared to the base year of 1923). Stegemann’s longitudinal yield data were presented in June 1931 to Experimental Circle members, under constraints of confidentiality, at his farm at Marienstein (in the then Province of Hanover; now in the German state of Lower Saxony), and now appear unbridled from those constraints of confidentiality.</p> John Paull Copyright (c) 2023 John Paull Tue, 19 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Assumptions on Health Risks in Consuming Vermonia amygdalina and Fruits (Musa sp.) in Koko, Nigeria <p>The unified potential of plants to absorb nutrients from soil, air, and water, including their natural surrounding habitat, makes them efficient in translocating nutrients and absorbing pollutants to the leaves, fruits, and other edible parts. Composite soil and two plants, <em>Vermonia amygdalina</em> and <em>Musa sp.,</em> were selected from two areas (area 1 and area 2), respectively, in Koko, Nigeria. Both samples were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, gas chromatography, and a soxhlet extractor for heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins, respectively. Techniques applied were arithmetic mean, contamination factor, potential ecological risk index, and toxicity equivalence. Results revealed high mean concentrations of cadmium for plants in Area 1 (5.9022 mg/kg) and Area 2 (5.0172 mg/kg), respectively. The contamination factor showed a higher value in plants for cadmium in area 1 (5.9022 mg/kg) than in area 2 (5.017 mg/kg). The same was observed in the ecological risk index, as cadmium was concentrated more in plants (1.1612 mg/kg) in area 1 than (0.84 mg/kg) in area 2. PCBs recorded a high amount of mean in plants (14.095 ppb) for area 1 and 14.91 ppb in plants for area 2. The contamination factor in PCBs was the same in both areas, with area 1 recording 1409.5 ppb in plants and area 2 recording 1491 ppb in soil. The ecological risk index for plants was 496.7 ppb in plants for area 1 and 555.8 ppb in soil for area 2. Toxicity in dioxins exceeded the World Health Organization maximum limits, with Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins having the highest toxicity of 42.88 ppb in <em>V. amygdalina</em> and 9.69 ppb in <em>Musa sp.</em> Anthropogenic sources of pollutants such as shipping, oil transportation, power plant facilities, bitumen production, and lubricants remain key driving stressors that contribute to the destruction of plant ecology in Koko. The knowledge of the compounds constituting the make-up of these products in both plants reflects the health risks and hazards in the town. Hence, awareness and ecological monitoring of the area need a continuous program to minimize health hazards in Koko.</p> Amaka Michael, Peter Ndu Okeke, Chinedu Emeka Ihejirika, Christopher Chibuzor Ejiogu Copyright (c) 2023 Amaka Michael, Peter Ndu Okeke, Chinedu Emeka Ihejirika, Christopher Chibuzor Ejiogu Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400